This is what first got me cracking on it. its from Alan as well. I have no issues with the rest of your post except for this part: Quote: Originally Posted by ChuckRD The last thing I want is my body to utilize the carbs I just ate to fuel the workout. If anything, eat some MUFA or PUFA before the workout. Hell its only weights and LI cardio. On the contrary, it's during the height of insulin sensitivity/cellular receptivity that carbs are best utilized for a number of functions that benefit bodycomp. When is muscle most insulin-sensitive? During training and immediately after training, and at a diminishing rate thereafter. Keep in mind that I'm not even addressing the topic of glycogenesis at all, I'm talking about coinciding plasma glucose peaks with peak insulin sensitivity for the purpose of maximizing muscle protein synthesis (MPS). As far as MPS is concerned, carbohydrate (CHO) + essential amino acids (EAA) surrounding training = synergistic increase in MPS. Anssi just posted a study showing the synergistic effect of CHO + EAA postexercise on increasing muscle fiber cross sectional area. Let's quote the researchers [Bird, et al. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Mar 24]: "These data indicate that CHO + EAA ingestion enhances muscle anabolism following resistance training to a greater extent than either CHO or EAA consumed independently. The synergistic effect of CHO + EAA ingestion maximises the anabolic response presumably by attenuating the post-exercise rise in protein degradation." The results of this study are consistent with what Wolfe observed in a fantastic mechanistic review [J. Nutr. 132:3219S-3224S, October 2002]: "When carbohydrate alone is ingested there is minimal effect on MPS, but there is an interactive effect with amino acid ingestion, meaning the response to amino acids plus glucose is more than the sum of their individual effects." The often-cited Tipton study illustrates the superior effectiveness of immediate pre-workout CHO + EAA on muscle protein synthesis when compared to the same combination ingested immediatelty afterward. To quote the authors [Tipton, et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol ****b. 2001 Aug;281(2):E197-206.]: "The ingestion of a relatively small amount of essential amino acids, combined with carbohydrates, is an effective stimulator of net muscle protein synthesis. [...] The combination of increased amino acid levels at a time when blood flow is increased appears to offer the maximum stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by increasing amino acid delivery to the muscle and thus amino acid availability." Thus, it stands to reason that the optimal approach would be to concentrate CHO + EAA around & throughout training. Peak blood flow & maximal insulin sensitivity set the stage for optimal nutrient delivery into muscle. Now onto more research that solidifies the reasoning behind coinciding carb (and amino acid) availability with elevated insulin sensitivity.. A very interesting study done this year illustrates this principle nicely. Englert's team looked at the effect of a mere 400 kcals of energy burned from exercise on the insulin index of 50g carbohydrate, in comparison to 50g carbohydrate ingested NOT in the postworkout state. 30% less insulin output was seen in the exercise treatment, due to the increased insulin sensitivity (read: cellular reception) to carbs. Less insulin secretion was required for glucose disposal because like I said, carbs are maximally utilized during & immediately posttraining, and at a diminishing rate thereafter. Let's quote the findings [Englert, et al. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006 Jun;25(3):195-202.]: "An acute bout of prior exercise had no effect on the GI of an energy bar compared to that of the same food determined under the standard no-exercise conditions. However, prior exercise resulted in a [30%] lower 2-h insulin response to the CHO-rich energy bar." So what's the benefit of separating carb intake AWAY from exercise, as opposed to concentrating it around & throughout exercise? The answer is none. Carbs absorbed at points of lesser insulin sensitivity (ie, away from training) not only compromise the synergistic potential for muscle protein synthesis when combined with EAA, but they also require more insulin output to be ****bolized. In general terms, carbs ingested closer to exercise (& absorbed during exercise) stand the least chance of being stored as fat. This reminds me a lot about the whole fasted/low-intensity cardio myth, especially how guys are afraid to place carbs near the training bout. Science has squashed this myth pretty handily. Trust that I can go off on a tangent about what's wrong with the objective of fat oxidation during training. Bottom line is that whether you consume 50g carbs a day or 500g carbs a day, the closer their availability is to exercise, the better they'll be put to use for muscle protein synthesis, glycogenesis (another debate, I know), as well as optimal calorie partitioning into lean tissue as opposed to storage in fat tissue. I know that this is an aside since we're talking about bodycomp, but it goes without saying that the principles I outlined maximize exercise performance in terms of both power output &/or endurance. It's an obvious win-win since structure determines function.