ALCAR info

Discussion in 'Dieting / Supplement Discussion' started by Vedic, Jun 15, 2008.

  1. Vedic

    Vedic Purple Belt

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    Some have asked about it lately, so here is some info. I don't find it to be all that useful for fat loss. However I do find it to have some effect on that. i use it for its many other facets, some of which are common topics here.




    Acetyl L-Carnitine

    ALC improves both Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory.

    ALC improves Mood [ALC improves Mood in 53% of healthy subjects].

    Acetyl L-Carnitine retards some aspects of the Aging Process in the Skin:

    ALC improves the reaction times of people afflicted with Cerebral Insufficiency.

    ALC (2-4 grams per day) improves walking distance without Pain in people afflicted with Intermittent Claudication.

    ALC prevents the age-related impairment of Eyesight (by protecting the Neurons of the Optic Nerve and the Occipital Cortex of the Brain.

    ALC enhances the ability of Macro****es to function as ****ocytes.

    ALC improves Athletic Performance [ALC given prior to Exercise increased the maximum running speed of animals].

    ALC enhances the function of Cytochrome Oxidase (an essential enzyme of the Electron Transport System (ETS).

    ALC improves the Energy ****bolism of Neurons (by enhancing the transport of Medium-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids and Short-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids across the Cell Membranes of Neurons into the Mitochondria).

    ALC inhibits the damage caused by Hypoxia.
    ALC transports Lipids into the Mitochondria of Cells.

    ALC improves mood and memory in people with Age Associated Memory Impairment.

    ALC improves Mental Function where Alcohol induced cognitive Impairment exists.

    ALC increases Alertness.

    Acetyl-L-Carnitine inhibits the deterioration in Mental Function associated with Alzheimer
     
  2. Vedic

    Vedic Purple Belt

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    This is from Animals site:

    Mechanisms via how you can manipulate nutrient partitioning....i.e. Insulin levels/Blood Glucose levels.

    a)Non-insulin mediated glucose partitioning(Or if you prefer disposal). These types of supplements(For example R-ALA and Acetyl-L-Carnitine) work INDEPENDENT of insulin. They have little effect on its release or degradation in the bloodstream. What they do, is increase translocation of intra-cellular Glut-4’s(Glucose Transporters) to the outside of the cellular membrane albeit in the adipocytes(fat cells) and miocytes(muscle cells). The net result, is that more glucose is diverted to the miocytes, and less to the adipocytes. In hypocaloric diets, this means, more fat-loss, and better muscle preservation. In hypercaloric diets, this means more muscle gain, and less fat gain.
    b) Insulin mediated glucose partitioning(or disposal). These types of supplements actually influence AA transport b/c they work through insulin signalling pathways. CLA is a good example. CLA works by increasing AA and glucose transport into the muscle cells via insulin stimulated pathways, and therefore in hypocaloric diets acts as an anti-catabolic. CLA
    also keeps blood glucose levels more stable. In essence preventing preventing high blood glucose or hypoglycaemia after a carb meal.
    c)Non-stimulating thermogenics. GLA. In order to explain a bit how GLA works, I will briefly explain what prostaglandins are.

    Series 1 Prostaglandins = Good(PgF2A)( Anabolic) They are incredibly thermogenic and help build muscle.
    Series 2 Prostaglandins = Bad(PgE2)(Catabolic) They break down protein.
    Series 1 and 2 produced by your cells always at a 1:1 ratio.
    Series 3 Prostaglandins block the production of series 2.
    Series 1 and 2 Prostaglandins are made from the essential fatty acid Linoleic Acid.
    Linoleic Acid = Omega-6 Fatty Acid .
    Linolenic Acid(Alpha-linolenic acid) is an Omega-3 fatty Acid Series 3 Prostaglandins are derived from this acid.
    GLA = Omega-6 Fatty Acid (Gamma-Linolenic Acid) This BLOCKS series 2 Prostaglandins.
    By Blocking series 2 prostaglandins, GLA shifts the normal 1:1 Prostaglandin ratio to the PgF2A(Anabolic) side. In essence, promoting thermogenesis. As can be shown in my study of GLA. Its anabolic effects were not measured(As this is also a direct consequence of a positive PgF2A environment) .

    These explanations for the different workings of each substance can be seen to be true when one compares each to the Placebo measurements.
     
  3. Vedic

    Vedic Purple Belt

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    *acetyl L-Carnitine (ALC) is the acetyl ester of carnitine, which transports fats into the mitochondria. In the mitochondria these fats are converted to an energy source. ALC is found in the brain but its levels are dramatically reduced as we age. Recent research has vaulted ALC as one of the premiere anti-aging compounds, especially in relation to brain and nervous system deterioration. ALC not only increases the release and synthesis of acetylcholine it now appears that it has neuroprotective and neuroenhancing properties as well. ALC can prevent dopaminergic neuron death by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease. It has also been established that the density of NMDA receptors declines with age along with a decreased amount of NGF (Nerve Growth Factor). Treatment with ALC restores the NMDA receptor numbers and enhances the effects of NGF.

    ENHANCING ENERGY & ENDURANCE FOR GREATER ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE
    You're blasting your biceps. Pushing hard to get in one last repetition. But muscle failure sets in and you just can't do it. No more energy. No more ATP. No chance of finishing your set. You turn to your left and the guy next to you is still going to town, doing the same exercise with the same weight. How come he can do more than you? Isn't there anything you can do to improve your energy and endurance to help power you through your workout? Yes, there is! You can use a revolutionary dietary supplement called Acetyl L-Carnitine. This supplement can provide you with critical nutritional support to improve long-term energy and endurance in physical performance.

    L-Carnitine and ATP.
    The amino acid l-carnitine is well known for its key role in the burning of fats. Specifically, l-carnitine transports fatty acids to the innermost section of the mitochondria (the cellular powerplants for energy) where they are used to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the body. Studies have shown that carnitine deficiency lowers ATP levels in various tissues. Carnitine deficiency also increases the susceptibility to fatigue from, and decreased the rate of recovery following, strenuous physical activity

    Acetyl L-Carnitine (ACL).

    Is the acetyl ester of the amino acid l-carnitine, which transports fats into the mitochondria. In the mitochondria these fats are converted to an energy source. It is a nutrient and naturally occurring ****bolite that is involved in lipid, carbohydrate and protein, ****bolism. ALC is naturally present in the human and animal body. The heart, brain, the muscles, and the testicles contain considerable concentrations of ALC but its levels are dramatically reduced as we age.

    The esterified form is particularly well absorbed. As a matter of fact, when radioactively labeled ALC is administered, it is readily taken up in the cells. The distribution inside the cells was found to be 60% free l-carnitine, which was to be expected, and 40% ALC, which underscores the importance of this unique substance in the body.

    ALC and coenzyme A.
    Though closely related to l-carnitine, ALC surpasses the ****bolic potency of carnitine. ALC is a source of precious acetyl groups that facilitate energetic pathways and which carnitine cannot supply. Acetyls from ALC can be combined with coenzyme A (the ****bolized form of the vitamin pantothenic acid) to create Acetyl-Coenzyme A (A-CoA). It is the A-CoA acting within the Krebs cycle that helps to generate ATP. The acetyl groups of ALC, once incorporated into A-CoA, can be used interchangeably in a variety of ****bolic pathways. When energy charge is low, A-CoA stores are being depleted, and ALC can be drawn upon to replenish A-CoA. When the cell's energy charge is high, carnitine can be converted back to ALC, thereby conserving the acetyl until it is needed for energy generation or for the other ****bolic purposes

    ALC and endurance.
    The bottom line is that ALC can improve energy and endurance in physical performance. ALC represents a substance which is a high energy storage compound. Research has shown that ALC can increase the amount of ATP produced in the body for energy. Furthermore, a Russian study in 1993 demonstrated that ALC administration for 10 days statistically and significantly increased maximum running speed and endurance.

    Other ALC contributions.
    In addition, ALC has other valuable contributions to make to human health and fitness. Research has demonstrated that ALC is capable of reducing cortisol levels after administration. This is important since cortisol is a catabolic hormone that can increase the breakdown of muscle tissue, which is certainly an important consideration for bodybuilders and other athletes. Other research has shown that besides reducing cortisol levels, ALC can reduce prolonged intracellular lactic acidosis, secondary tissuedegeneration, and neuronal cell death.

    ALC and aging.
    Recent research has vaulted ALC as one of the premiere anti-aging compounds, especially in relation to brain and nervous system deterioration. ALC not only increases the release and synthesis of acetylcholine it now appears that it has neuroprotective and neuroenhancing properties as well. ALC can prevent dopaminergic neuron death by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes symptoms similar to Parkinsons disease. It has also been established that the density of NMDA receptors declines with age along with a decreased amount of NGF (Nerve Growth Factor). Treatment with ALC restores the NMDA receptor numbers and enhances the effects of NGF. Thus, both animal and human research has demonstrated that ALC has improved age-related memory impairment in elderly subjects.

    from nubrain*
     
  4. Vedic

    Vedic Purple Belt

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    Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: Partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid -- Liu et al. 99 (4): 2356 -- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 4, 2356-2361, February 19,
    2002

    Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial
    decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: Partial reversal by feeding
    acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R--lipoic acid

    [names and research institutes cut for brevity, see URL above]

    Accumulation of oxidative damage to mitochondria, protein, and
    nucleic acid in the brain may lead to neuronal and cognitive
    dysfunction. The effects on cognitive function, brain
    mitochondrial structure, and biomarkers of oxidative damage were
    studied after feeding old rats two mitochondrial ****bolites,
    acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) [0.5% or 0.2% (wt/vol) in drinking
    water], and/or R--lipoic acid (LA) [0.2% or 0.1% (wt/wt) in diet].
    Spatial memory was assessed by using the Morris water maze;
    temporal memory was tested by using the peak procedure (a time-
    discrimination procedure). Dietary supplementation with ALCAR
    and/or LA improved memory, the combination being the most
    effective for two different tests of spatial memory (P < 0.05;
    P < 0.01) and for temporal memory (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical
    analysis showed that oxidative damage to nucleic acids (8-
    hydroxyguanosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) increased with
    age in the hippocampus, a region important for memory. Oxidative
    damage to nucleic acids occurred predominantly in RNA. Dietary
    administration of ALCAR and/or LA significantly reduced the
    extent of oxidized RNA, the combination being the most effective.
    Electron microscopic studies in the hippocampus showed that ALCAR
    and/or LA reversed age-associated mitochondrial structural decay.
    These results suggest that feeding ALCAR and LA to old rats
    improves performance on memory tasks by lowering oxidative damage
    and improving mitochondrial function.

    ************************************************** **************

    Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: Improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-L- carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid -- Liu et al. 99 (4): 1876 -- Proceedings of

    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 4, 1876-1881, February 19,
    2002

    Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: Improvement of
    carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and
    activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-L-carnitine
    and/or R--lipoic acid

    [names and research institutes cut for brevity, see URL]

    We test whether the dysfunction with age of carnitine
    acetyltransferase (CAT), a key mitochondrial enzyme for fuel
    utilization, is due to decreased binding affinity for substrate
    and whether this substrate, fed to old rats, restores CAT
    activity. The kinetics of CAT were analyzed by using the brains
    of young and old rats and of old rats supplemented for 7 weeks
    with the CAT substrate acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) and/or the
    mitochondrial antioxidant precursor R--lipoic acid (LA). Old
    rats, compared with young rats, showed a decrease in CAT activity
    and in CAT-binding affinity for both substrates, ALCAR and CoA.
    Feeding ALCAR or ALCAR plus LA to old rats significantly restored
    CAT-binding affinity for ALCAR and CoA, and CAT activity. To
    explore the underlying mechanism, lipid peroxidation and total
    iron and copper levels were assayed; all increased in old rats.
    Feeding old rats LA or LA plus ALCAR inhibited lipid peroxidation
    but did not decrease iron and copper levels. Ex vivo oxidation of
    young-rat brain with Fe(II) caused loss of CAT activity and
    binding affinity. In vitro oxidation of purified CAT with Fe(II)
    inactivated the enzyme but did not alter binding affinity. However,
    in vitro treatment of CAT with the lipid peroxidation
    products malondialdehyde or 4-hydroxy-nonenal caused a decrease
    in CAT-binding affinity and activity, thus mimicking age-related
    change. Preincubation of CAT with ALCAR or CoA prevented
    malondialdehyde-induced dysfunction. Thus, feeding old rats high
    levels of key mitochondrial ****bolites can ameliorate oxidative
    damage, enzyme activity, substrate-binding affinity, and
    mitochondrial dysfunction.

    ************************************************** **************

    Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress -- Hagen et al. 99 (4): 1870 -- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 4, 1870-1875, February 19,
    2002

    Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly
    improves ****bolic function while decreasing oxidative stress

    [names and research institutes cut for brevity, see URL above]

    Mitochondrial-supported bioenergetics decline and oxidative stress
    increases during aging. To address whether the dietary addition of
    acetyl-L-carnitine [ALCAR, 1.5% (wt/vol) in the drinking water]
    and/or (R)--lipoic acid [LA, 0.5% (wt/wt) in the chow] improved
    these endpoints, young (2-4 mo) and old (24-28 mo) F344 rats were
    supplemented for up to 1 mo before death and hepatocyte isolation.
    ALCAR+LA partially reversed the age-related decline in average
    mitochondrial membrane potential and significantly increased (P =
    0.02) hepatocellular O2 consumption, indicating that mitochondrial-
    supported cellular ****bolism was markedly improved by this
    feeding regimen. ALCAR+LA also increased ambulatory activity in
    both young and old rats; moreover, the improvement was
    significantly greater (P = 0.03) in old versus young animals and
    also greater when compared with old rats fed ALCAR or LA alone.
    To determine whether ALCAR+LA also affected indices of oxidative
    stress, ascorbic acid and markers of lipid peroxidation
    (malondialdehyde) were monitored. The hepatocellular ascorbate
    level markedly declined with age (P = 0.003) but was restored to
    the level seen in young rats when ALCAR+LA was given. The level of
    malondialdehyde, which was significantly higher (P = 0.0001) in
    old versus young rats, also declined after ALCAR+LA supplementation
    and was not significantly different from that of young unsupplemented
    rats. Feeding ALCAR in combination with LA increased ****bolism and
    lowered oxidative stress more than either compound alone.
     
  5. Vedic

    Vedic Purple Belt

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    This one is interesting


    Measurements of GH release occurring at 1.5 hours post sleep were performed on serum samples from a healthy 52 year old male volunteer. Controls and serum analysis for GH were measured by standard commercially avialable antibody capture technique. Experiments and measurement of results occurred between June and October 2000. Each single night experimental serum collection was separated from any other experiments by 1 week. All determinations represent averaged value of triple determinations. Acetyl-l-carnitine and l-ornithine values are in milligrams (mg). Measurements were each performed on serum collected 1.5 hours post night time sleep. Choice of 1.5 hours post sleep represents one complete sleep cycle with slow wave sleep during which GH is released. Oral ingestions of stated substances occurred just before night sleep. The normal range of serum GH at 1.5 hours post sleep is in the 1-10 nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml) range. The variance in measurement precision is given by the second value. All experiments were preceded by a period of 3-4 hours since the last meal.

    1 Measured GH Experimental Conditions (ng/ml) Control (no treatment) 1.5 hour post sleep serum collection 0.55 .+-. 0.2 500 mg Acetyl-l-carnitine at sleep, 1.5 hour post sleep serum 0.55 .+-. 0.1 collection 500 mg l-ornithine at sleep, 1.5 hour post sleep serum 0.55 .+-. 0.2 collection 500 mg acetyl-l-carnitine + 25 mg l-ornithine at sleep, 1.25 .+-. 0.3 1.5 hour post sleep serum collection 500 mg acetyl-l-carnitine + 35 mg l-ornithine at sleep, 7.5 .+-. 1.2 1.5 hour post sleep serum collection 500 mg acetyl-l-carnitine + 45 mg l-ornithine at sleep, 34.5 .+-. 3.7 1.5 hour post sleep serum collection

    This data shows the absence of effect of either acetyl-l-carnitine or l-ornithine alone to augment GH release at 1.5 hours post sleep. Ingestion of both acetyl-l-carnitine and l-ornithine at night sleep displays a synergy that increases GH release with the level of l-ornithine. This data also indicates a non-linear increase in GH release with increasing l-ornithine in the the active mixture of acetyl-l-carnitine and l-ornithine. This data accords with our choice of 20 to 40 milligrams of l-ornithine along with the 500 milligrams of acetyl-l-carnitine as a proper range for maintenance of young adult levels of augmented human GH release.

    Here's the link to the patent application:

    http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-...=ornithine&OS="acetyl+l+carnitine"+AND+ornithine&RS="acetyl+l+ca rnitine"+AND+ornithine
     
  6. Vedic

    Vedic Purple Belt

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  7. ronin0352

    ronin0352 Lift, Eat, Sleep, Repeat

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    Holy shit man. Info overload.

    J/K Good info just from skimming through it real quick, I'll take the time to read it properly later on, no time now. Thanks Vedic.
     
  8. Vedic

    Vedic Purple Belt

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    Actually I agree:)

    I figured since there have been lots of questions there should be lots of info hahaha. If you get a minute, some of it is quite interesting.
     
  9. Inspector Rex

    Inspector Rex Orange Belt

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    loved the info cheers bro, just started tak 1-2g a day and will post here how it goes
     
  10. bunzo7

    bunzo7 Brown Belt

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    ALL kinds of fatty acids? no discrimination?
     

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