I realized about mid-way through that we will not be able to resolve this dispute. Basically, my view is that 1. The major goal of education is to develop critical thinking. So "educated person" really means "good critical thinker with some basic knowledge". 2. Critical thinkers are going to be 90+% independent. The remaining will break slightly D. A lot of "scientists" are not good at critical thinking (I used to work in a prestigious lab at a prestigious medical school and met plenty of this type), and the degree mills are churning out an ever higher percentage of people who are horrible at critical thinking. But then Pew/Gallup/whatever is not going to have data broken down by critical thinking ability and so we might as well drop it.