Your mistake is to work on the assumption that the OST signatories actually want to stop one another from conducting independent commercial Lunar mining. Newsflash: They don't. Because they all want to do it too. While you're wrestling with game theories and legal technicalities, the Big 3 space-faring nations (and strong men of the U.N) have already sidestepped that bit about "Lunar land ownership" long ago, and plans to go straight to building Lunar bases and establishing commercial Lunar mining operations as soon as possible, on sections of the Moon that they freely acknowledges doesn't belongs to anyone, without ever formally claiming any patch of Lunar land for their country. Private American companies are officially allowed commercial mining rights by the U.S Government with the passage of the SPACE Act of 2015. Russia and China each have their own version of it. Europe is too busy bickering with themselves to notice that they're being left in the dust. A century from now, there probably will be American, Russian, and Chinese lunar mining bases all over the moon to extract Helium-3, from land that still belongs to no one. ----- American Billionaire closer to mining the moon for trillions of dollars in riches Russia's plan to conquer the moon: Nation will send 12 cosmonauts to lunar surface ahead of creating a permanent base by 2030 How China is sending man back to the Moon to mine safe nuclear power and become the world's energy giant The future of moon mining So, despite of how you interpret the OST, reality is that there will be no objections whatsoever from any space-faring parties towards one another in this Free For All mining spree in the Lunar Wild West, and none of them will ever claim to own any land on the moon, or raise objections to each others' mining operations to the United Nations, as long as everyone minds their own mining business in their own corners and nobody are fighting over the same spot. This is why I said the OST seriously needs to be updated to catch up with new realities now, expanding from the original clauses on "land ownerships" and "space WMD" that no one actually cares about, and focus specifically in regards to permanent commercial bases and mining rights, before that floodgate is busted wide-open, and busted wide-open it will.