Mass incarceration of African Americans affects the racial achievement gap — report

Discussion in 'The War Room' started by moneyfight, Mar 16, 2017.

  1. moneyfight Double Yellow Card

    moneyfight
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    [​IMG]

    Consider:

    * By the age of 14, approximately 25 percent of African American children have experienced a parent — in most cases a father — being imprisoned for some period of time. On any given school day, approximately 10 percent of African American schoolchildren have a parent who is in jail or prison, more than four times the share in 1980.

    * The comparable share for white children is 4 percent; an African American child is six times as likely as a white child to have or have had an incarcerated parent.

    * A growing share of African Americans have been arrested for drug crimes, yet African Americans are no more likely than whites to sell or use drugs. Of imprisoned fathers of African American children, only one-third are in prison because of a violent crime.

    * Research in criminal justice, health, sociology, epidemiology, and economics demonstrates that when parents are incarcerated, children do worse across cognitive and noncognitive outcome measures — and the incarceration is a key cause. For example, children of incarcerated parents are more likely to drop out of school; develop learning disabilities; misbehave in school; suffer from migraines, asthma, high cholesterol, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and homelessness.

    [The reason America’s schools are so segregated — and the only way to fix it]

    Those are findings from a new report released by the nonprofit Economic Policy Institute that says the “evidence is overwhelming that the unjustified incarceration of African American fathers (and, increasingly, mothers as well) is an important cause of the lowered performance of their children” and of the racial achievement gap.

    When parents are imprisoned, it is not only they who suffer, but also their offspring. The number of children affected has grown to the point that we can reasonably infer that our criminal justice system is making an important contribution to the racial achievement gap in both cognitive and noncognitive skills.

    The report also says that educators should view criminal justice reform as a key part of school reform and join forces with reformers in the area of criminal justice.

    Educators have paid too little heed to this criminal justice crisis. Criminal justice reform should be a policy priority for educators who are committed to improving the achievement of African American children. While reform of federal policy may seem implausible in a Trump administration, educators can seize opportunities for such advocacy at state and local levels because many more parents are incarcerated in state than in federal prisons. In 2014, over 700,000 prisoners nationwide were serving sentences of a year or longer for nonviolent crimes. Over 600,000 of these were in state, not federal, prisons.

    [From Ferguson to Baltimore: The consequences of government-sponsored segregation]

    The report was done by Leila Morsy and Richard Rothstein, both of the Economic Policy Institute, a nonprofit organization created in 1986 to broaden the discussion about economic policy to include the interests of low- and middle-income workers. Morsy is a senior lecturer in education at the School of Education at the University of New South Wales, and a research associate at EPI. Rothstein is also an EPI research associate as well as a senior fellow at the Thurgood Marshall Institute of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc., and author of the forthcoming “The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America.” A former national education writer for the New York Times, Rothstein also has written books that include “Grading Education: Getting Accountability Right,” and “Class and Schools: Using Social, Economic and Educational Reform to Close the Black-White Achievement Gap.”

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    https://www.washingtonpost.com/news...chievement-gap-report/?utm_term=.254f366da760

    ^Full 24 page report inside link.

    Sherdog what is the solution for Americas epidemic of African mass incarceration?

    Did the drop in murder and violent crime rates over the last few decades justify this?

    [​IMG]
     
    #1
  2. moneyfight Double Yellow Card

    moneyfight
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    The Black Male Incarceration Problem Is Real and It’s Catastrophic

    [​IMG]

    “We have more work to do when more young black men languish in prison than attend colleges and universities across America.” President Barack Obama

    In a recent article the widely held belief surrounding the number of black men incarcerated outnumbering the number of black men enrolled in higher education was refuted. The piece is titled “The myth that there are more black men in prison than in college, debunked in one chart”. The author appears to believe through proving this assertion about prison and education ratios to be inaccurate either a point of great progress can be demonstrated, or an overstatement of calamity about the state of African American men can be corrected.



    Yet the real issue is the number of people in prison should never be similar to the number educated. For most in our country this in fact holds true, but for black men the two numbers are in fact close and that is the inescapable problem. The supposed myth on its face may in fact be incorrect. There may be more black men in college than in prison, but the truth still stands that there are a socially catastrophic number of black men behind bars in the United States. Let me give a bit of context for this discussion. Referencing the same article above

    “The Census estimates that approximately 18,508,926 people in the U.S. population are black males, of all ages...The Bureau of Justice Statistics’ National Prisoner Statistics Program reports that in that same year, 526,000 were in state or federal prisons, and, as of mid-year 2013, 219,660 were in local jails, making for a total of about 745,000 behind bars”

    To give a lens for viewing this data India is a country of 1.2 Billion people, the country in total only has around 380,000 prisoners. In fact, there are more African American men incarcerated in the U.S. than the total prison populations in India, Argentina, Canada, Lebanon, Japan, Germany, Finland, Israel and England combined.

    [​IMG]

    As stated by Nicole Porter in the piece “Politics of Black Lives Matter”

    ...countries have the policies and prison populations they choose. Between 1965 and 1990, a period during which overall and violent crime rates tripled in Germany, Finland, and the United States, German politicians chose to hold the imprisonment rate flat, Finnish politicians chose to substantially reduce theirs, and American politicians generally enacted policies that sent more people to prison, along with lengthened prison terms.

    Today in the United States there are approximately 18 million black men, and nearly 161 million women of all races. According to the Sentencing Project the total number of women incarcerated in America is about 200,000. Even more shocking despite the population of black men being about a tenth the size, there are nearly 4 times as many black men incarcerated in comparison to women of all races in the U.S.

    To give a more appropriate contrast than just black men in college and black men incarcerated, lets look at the debated education vs incarceration reality for white women and black men comparatively. According to the Census in total there are about 8.5 million white women in college, and there are just 60,000 white women incarcerated. For black men the numbers are as listed above, there are about 1.4 million black men enrolled in higher education, and a cataclysmic 745,000 behind bars, with another large sum on probation and parole.

    [​IMG]

    So in the end the contrasting of college enrollment vs. incarceration is not the key comparative. While it is part of an analysis, only by applying it with more depth can we see a fuller and more accurate picture. It is more important to look at these rates and be honest about the advantaged, and disadvantaged. The key is that as then presidential candidate Barack Obama stated “We have more work to do...” We can only take steps and start this work by asking the hard question of why historical differences in both opportunity and misfortune have left us such a disparity in access to opportunity for all.

    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/antonio-moore/black-mass-incarceration-statistics_b_6682564.html
     
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  3. silus_2000 Gold Belt

    silus_2000
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    Well, they aren't incarcerated indiscriminately, so you have to attack the decision making of these individuals, and the conditions that helped mold them. There are several reasons i'd say, with a big one being coming from a broken home.
     
    #3
  4. moneyfight Double Yellow Card

    moneyfight
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    America has locked up so many black people it has warped our sense of reality

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    For as long as the government has kept track, the economic statistics have shown a troubling racial gap. Black people are twice as likely as white people to be out of work and looking for a job. This fact was as true in 1954 as it is today.

    The most recent report puts the white unemployment rate at around 4.5 percent. The black unemployment rate? About 8.8 percent.

    But the economic picture for black Americans is far worse than those statistics indicate. The unemployment rate only measures people who are both living at home and actively looking for a job.

    The hitch: A lot of black men aren't living at home and can’t look for jobs — because they’re behind bars.

    Though there are nearly 1.6 million Americans in state or federal prison, their absence is not accounted for in the figures that politicians and policymakers use to make decisions. As a result, we operate under a distorted picture of the nation's economic health.

    There's no simple way to estimate the impact of mass incarceration on the jobs market. But here's a simple thought experiment. Imagine how the white and black unemployment rates would change if all the people in prison were added to the unemployment rolls.

    According to a Wonkblog analysis of government statistics, about 1.6 percent of prime-age white men (25 to 54 years old) are institutionalized. If all those 590,000 people were recognized as unemployed, the unemployment rate for prime-age white men would increase from about 5 percent to 6.4 percent.

    For prime-age black men, though, the unemployment rate would jump from 11 percent to 19 percent. That's because a far higher fraction of black men — 7.7 percent, or 580,000 people — are institutionalized.

    Now, the racial gap starts to look like a racial chasm. (When you take into account local jails, which are not included in these statistics, the situation could be even worse.)

    [​IMG]

    “Imprisonment makes the disadvantaged literally invisible,” writes Harvard sociologist Bruce Western in his book, "Punishment and Inequality in America." Western was among the first scholars to argue that America has locked up so many people it needs to rethink how it measures the economy.

    Over the past 40 years, the prison population has quintupled. As a consequence of disparities in arrests and sentencing, this eruption has disproportionately affected black communities. Black men are imprisoned at six times the rate of white men. In 2003, the Bureau of Justice Statistics estimated that black men have a 1 in 3 chance of going to federal or state prison in their lifetimes. For some high-risk groups, the economic consequences have been staggering. According to Census data from 2014, there are more young black high school dropouts in prison than have jobs.

    [Researchers have discovered a new and surprising racial bias in the criminal justice system]

    The economic data sweeps these people under the rug, making the situation look far too optimistic for African-Americans. Western started writing about this problem in the early 2000s with Becky Pettit, a sociologist at the University of Texas, Austin. They’ve published reports in top journals, and have each authored books on the subject.

    It’s taken a long time for this blind spot to be recognized. Much of the debate about prisons has focused on disparities in the justice system, and rightly so, Western says. The problem begins there. But when a large chunk of the working-age population vanishes from public life, the repercussions spread.

    One in nine black children has had a parent behind bars. One in thirteen black adults can't vote because of their criminal records. Discrimination on the job market deepens racial inequality. Not only does a criminal record make it harder to get hired, but studies find that a criminal record is more of a handicap for black men. Employers are willing to give people second chances, but less so if they're black.

    “Jim Crow and slavery were caste systems. So is our current system of mass incarceration,” wrote civil rights lawyer Michelle Alexander in her 2010 book "The New Jim Crow."

    These consequences entangle the broader economy.Yet, many people who study employment and the job market haven't been paying attention to the criminal justice system. That's a big mistake, according to Western.

    “From my point of view," he says, "mass incarceration is so deeply connected to American poverty and economic inequality."

    A look at the troubling data
    To see Western’s point, consider the statistics for people at high risk of arrest — young men (aged 20-34) who never finished high school.

    Let's set aside for a moment the unemployment rate, which is a blinkered measure of the economy. Only people who have recently looked for a job are considered unemployed. Instead, economists often focus on a different number, the fraction of people who have jobs. This is called the "employment-population ratio."

    Overall, about 60 percent of young white dropouts and 36 percent of young black dropouts were employed in 2014, according to the Census's Current Population Survey. But there's a caveat to that number. It excludes people in prison or otherwise institutionalized.

    The Census separately measures this population. According to that data, about 7.6 percent of these white men were institutionalized in 2014. (Overwhelmingly, this means jail, but it could also mean a mental hospital or a nursing home.) For black men, the fraction is so staggering, it seems like a typo — 29 percent of black male high-school dropouts between the ages of 20 and 34 were institutionalized in 2014.

    When you add in all of the incarcerated, thenumbers become much bleaker and the racial gaps much wider. In reality, only about 54 percent of young white male high-school dropouts had jobs in 2014. And only 25 percent of their black counterparts were employed.

    [​IMG]

    As the above numbers indicate, there are more young black male high school dropouts behind bars than have jobs. This is a very high-risk population. But even if we zoom out, the data still are skewed.

    Here are the same numbers for all prime-age men in 2014. Officially, 84 percent of white men between 25-54 were working in 2014, compared to 71 percent of black men. After including the incarcerated, the fraction of white men who have jobs hardly changes. But the black employment-population ratio drops to 66 percent.

    How incarceration has changed the economy
    The prison boom has made such a dent that recently, social scientists have completely reconsidered how much progress the black community has made in recent decades.

    Derek Neal, an economist at The University of Chicago, and Armin Rick, an economist at Cornell, argue that mass incarceration has masked a lot of economic pain and a lot of inequality.

    The official statistics are "very deceptive when the trends in the fraction incarcerated are changing,” Neal says. “You can actually measure an increasing employment rate or a falling unemployment rate simply because, over this period, we’ve put more of the people who have trouble finding jobs in prison.”

    Neal and Rick explored a slightly different thought experiment. What if all these men had never been arrested? What if they all had jobs? What if they were earning wages on par with similar men with similar levels of education?

    The effects are not all expected, or even necessarily positive. According to Neal and Rick’s calculations, if all these prisoners were actually working, they would drag down the median white wage by just a little, but it would drag down the median black wage by a lot, since so many black men are incarcerated.

    The chart below shows the hypothetical black-white wage gap compared to the actual black-white wage gap, among men who are 11-15 years out of school. The 1960s and 1970s yielded incredible economic progress for black Americans — dividends from civil rights reform. But the trend stalled in subsequent decades. Then, the financial crisis hit, wiping out much of those past gains.

    Neal and Rick find that in 2010, black men earned about 75 cents for every dollar white men out of prison made. But if all the men in prison also had jobs, there would be a lot more inequality — black men would only be earning about 65 cents on the dollar. Had all these people been on the job market instead of in prison, they would have competedwith other workers for jobs, driving wages down.

    [​IMG]

    “The growth of incarceration rates among black men in recent decades,” they write, “combined with the sharp drop in black employment rates during the Great Recession have left most black men in a position relative to white men that is really no better than the position they occupied only a few years after the Civil Rights Act of 1965.”

    Western and Pettit argue that the wages for low-skilled black workers in the 1990s rose in part because incarceration reduced the number of people competing for work. As incarceration rates slowly start to fall, there will be pressure on the economy to absorb some of the most hard-to-employ people in society. "Somehow we're going to have to figure out how to address the really severe employment problems of low-skill men," Western says.

    This will prove particularly difficult because mass incarceration's ill effects are concentrated in places already in distress. Researchers once estimated that, in some inner-city neighborhoods, up to one-fifth of the young black men are behind bars at any given moment.

    In their absence, their communities start to fracture. So when they get out, they find that there are no jobs and no support networks. "The impact of incarceration on communities and the impact of communities on reentry together create a pernicious cycle of decline," professors Jeffrey Morenoff and David Harding wrote in the Annual Review of Sociology in 2014.

    For now, there are still so many people behind bars that it continues to warp our sense of reality. Recently, politicians challenged Federal Reserve chair Janet Yellen to recognize the vast racial inequalities in the economy. They cited the black unemployment rate — twice the white unemployment rate. But however bad those numbers seem, the truth, after accounting for incarceration, is even worse. So perhaps the next time the jobs report comes out, there could be an extra chart to recognize the 1.6 million prisoners in America.

    They don’t show up anywhere in the government’s measurements of economic activity, but their absence is dearly felt.

    https://www.washingtonpost.com/news...-our-sense-of-reality/?utm_term=.bce0c62738c8
     
    #4
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  5. Madmick Stop Spoiling My TV Life (it's the one I like)

    Madmick
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    Breaking headline: report reports that consequences have...consequences.
     
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  6. Fawlty Silver Belt

    Fawlty
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    I don't mean this in any negative way toward TS or this thread, but this wins the No Shit Sherlock award for March.
     
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  7. TheGreatA Brown Belt

    TheGreatA
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    It's a difficult subject. On one hand, the crime rate has decreased drastically since the 1970's, near 1950's (segregation) levels. On the other hand, the amount of people incarcerated is at an all-time high. And a large percentage of them represent minorities.

    If many of these people were suddenly granted clemency for minor crimes, it is likely that the crime rates would again drastically increase. Only a life of petty crime would be awaiting them.

    I suppose the only solution is to gradually re-work America's prison justice to be more rehabiliating (for minor criminals) than punishing. But it's a long process.
     
    #7
  8. glennrod Just like mountain, ya paying your dues

    glennrod
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    Something has to change, for the better
     
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  9. AGGAMEMNON66 -----------Villain-----------

    AGGAMEMNON66
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    And.. we're done here.
     
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  10. lecter Yellow Card

    lecter
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    Stop throwing non-violent criminals into prison, legalize drugs, try to positively influence culture and values in black communities to reduce single-mother households? idk
     
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  11. uppercutbus Yellow Card

    uppercutbus
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    Prison is the end result of a lot of problems beforehand, perhaps they should be looking at those.
     
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  12. VivaRevolution Red Belt

    VivaRevolution
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    Legalize drugs. Remove gang violence, which is the majority of black violent crime, and driven by profit motive of drug turf, and all other drug related arrests, and this problem goes away.

    This is why I hate BLM. It screams of controlled opposition that they were talking about reperations, and racist cop murder, instead of the effect the war on drugs has had on the black community over the last 50 years.

    When the only highly profitable economic opportunity in your community is an illegal trade, this is the result.
     
    #12
  13. GhostZ06 Gold Belt

    GhostZ06
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    well there is no more reason to debate this thread lol
     
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  14. punky brewster Black Belt

    punky brewster
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    Forget race for a second. Just go purely by gender. Is there a huge disparity in the number of men in prison verses number of women?
    Yes, Huffington post? And we can just agree that men are more prone to violence and crime than women, right, Huffington post? We all know it's true, and everyone accepts that as a fact.

    Do we say because there are much fewer women in prison than men, women must have female privilege that allows them this luxury?

    Now when race is brought into the equation, saying one race is more prone to violence and crime than another....... well, that is absolutely untrue and you must be a Nazi.
     
    #14
  15. moneyfight Double Yellow Card

    moneyfight
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    Correct, that's what makes this such a controversial topic.

    You can literally see murder and violent crime rates go down in the US as African American mass incarceration started.

    [​IMG]

    Obviously this is not a sustainable solution and it wont end well for America.

    [​IMG]
     
    #15
  16. glennrod Just like mountain, ya paying your dues

    glennrod
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    That's an interesting way to look at it...
     
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  17. uncommon Purple Belt

    uncommon
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    Why did obama pardon a ton of weed offenders but not legalize/decrim it?

    Didnt want to look bad in the history books or something?
     
    #17
  18. GhostZ06 Gold Belt

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    probably one of the best posts i've seen in a long time.


    Now i'm just waiting for the local warroom losers to come in and try an debate an bring there bordline xenophobic posts
     
    #18
  19. glennrod Just like mountain, ya paying your dues

    glennrod
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    Who would argue with what he said?. And who could do it on the grounds of "xenophobia"??
     
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  20. touchedbyjab Double Yellow Card

    touchedbyjab
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    *start cutting off hands
    *public hangings
    *no more victim culture perpetuated by libs for votes
    *more death penalty for violent felons, especially repeat offenders
    *send the feds to high crime urban areas like chicago and "air it out"
     
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